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Hy-Brassil: Irish origins of Brazil by Roger Casement

The Potato Mystic

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Hy-Brassil: Irish origins of Brazil by Roger Casement

By Roger Casement
(1 September 1864 - 3 August 1916) *

pdf source

Edited by Angus Mitchell West view from the Sky Road, Clifden, county Galway

The name Brazil could only have come to the Portuguese from the Celtic legendary name applied to the 'islands of the blessed', the Tír na nÓg of the land of the setting sun, which the Galway and Mayo peasant still sees in the sunset just as the Galician and Lusitanian wayfarers in Cabral's day dreamt of it before their eyes had actually fallen on the peaks of Porto Seguro rising from the western waves.

Introduction

This lecture, held in the National Library of Ireland Ms. 13,087(31), was written by Roger Casement during his time as a British consul in Belém do Pará at the mouth of the Amazon sometime during 1907-1908. [1] In broad terms it puts forward an argument that the origins of the name Brazil derive from the mythical Hy-Brassil. This imagined island, located to the west of Ireland, is variously described as a 'promised land', the island of the blesséd - Tír na nÓg - the land of the setting sun, and features most largely in the voyages of St Brendan. [2] In arguing such a root, Casement was current with Irish historical study of the day. He believed that Hy-Brassil was a name derived from the legends of the Atlantic sea-board, with Celto-Iberian origins dating from 'Atlantis and the submerged mother-land of the early Irish, Iberians and possibly Phoenicians'. The name Brazil as a surname is current and common to both Ireland and Portugal today and in Irish place names such as Clanbrassil. Certainly 'Brazil', in a number of variant spellings, can be found in several ancient Irish manuscripts. 'Breasail' is the name used for a pagan demigod in Hardiman's History of Galway.

pdf source
 

Goaty

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A horse that can travel on water, the sea, as well as land
and when he fell from the saddle and touched the ground. He aged hundreds of years and turned to dust.
So goes one of our legends. Time travel..
 

Earnán Ó Maille

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Sounds far fetched to me, still Rio sounds better than Cork.
'Memphis, TN | A group of volunteers cleaning up the shores of the Mississippi river near the biggest city in Tennessee, have stumbled upon the remains of an ancient boat encrusted in mud. A team of archeologists from the University of Memphis that was rapidly called to the site, confirmed that the ship is most certainly a Viking knarr, suggesting the Norse would have pushed their exploration of America a lot further than historians previously thought.

The heavily damaged ship was found near the confluence of the Wolf and Mississippi rivers, and lies on a private property. It has a length of about 16 meters, a beam of 4.5 meters, and a hull that is estimated capable of carrying up to 24 to 28 tons, a typical size for this type of ship. Knarrs were naval vessels that were built by the Norsemen from Scandinavia and Iceland for Atlantic voyages, but also used for trade, commerce, exploration, and warfare during an era known as the Viking Age, that goes approximately from 793 to 1066 AD. They were clinker built, which means the overlapping of planks riveted together. It was capable of sailing 75 miles (121 km) in one day and held a crew of about 20 to 30 men.

The carbon dating of the new ship estimates that it dates from between 990 and 1050 AD, approximately the period associated with Vinland and the various Canadian sites (L’Anse aux Meadows, Tantfield Valley, Avayalik Islands). This could mean that the that the Viking had actually developed a far wider trade network in the Americas that what was traditionnally believed. Unfortunately, very few other artefacts have yet been found on the site, suggesting the crew must have most likely abandoned the ship and continued on foot.

More searches are to be expected in the area over the next few years, as scientists will now certainly try to look for any artefacts or historical traces that could lead them to understand what happened to the crew of the ship. Many myths from local native tribes will also be analyzed by historians from the team to see if they could hold useful information, as both Chickasaw and Choctaw mythologies include many stories of fights against “red-haired devils”.

USA: Viking Ship Discovered Near Mississippi River – World News ...

It will be interesting to see if the Anthropologists can come up with anything from the Chickasaw and Choctaw myths, that may offer some clues as to where the Red Devils fled, to match the evidence that the Archaeologists have come up with. The Roman army had the ability to travel from Egypt to Britain B.C., and Julius Caesar has said the ships of the Celts were of superior quality to the Roman ships. I'm not trying to claim the Viking ship that was discovered on the banks of the Mississippi for the Celts, or the Gaels if you prefer, but the Vikings had fought, traded and married the Celts over the centuries, and at the very least they would have had access to the same ship-building knowledge, and the technology required to travel that far. The mythological stories of both cultures would have overlapped over the course of time, and may be our Tír na nÓg replaced their Valhalla.
 

ergo2

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'Memphis, TN | A group of volunteers cleaning up the shores of the Mississippi river near the biggest city in Tennessee, have stumbled upon the remains of an ancient boat encrusted in mud. A team of archeologists from the University of Memphis that was rapidly called to the site, confirmed that the ship is most certainly a Viking knarr, suggesting the Norse would have pushed their exploration of America a lot further than historians previously thought.

The heavily damaged ship was found near the confluence of the Wolf and Mississippi rivers, and lies on a private property. It has a length of about 16 meters, a beam of 4.5 meters, and a hull that is estimated capable of carrying up to 24 to 28 tons, a typical size for this type of ship. Knarrs were naval vessels that were built by the Norsemen from Scandinavia and Iceland for Atlantic voyages, but also used for trade, commerce, exploration, and warfare during an era known as the Viking Age, that goes approximately from 793 to 1066 AD. They were clinker built, which means the overlapping of planks riveted together. It was capable of sailing 75 miles (121 km) in one day and held a crew of about 20 to 30 men.

The carbon dating of the new ship estimates that it dates from between 990 and 1050 AD, approximately the period associated with Vinland and the various Canadian sites (L’Anse aux Meadows, Tantfield Valley, Avayalik Islands). This could mean that the that the Viking had actually developed a far wider trade network in the Americas that what was traditionnally believed. Unfortunately, very few other artefacts have yet been found on the site, suggesting the crew must have most likely abandoned the ship and continued on foot.

More searches are to be expected in the area over the next few years, as scientists will now certainly try to look for any artefacts or historical traces that could lead them to understand what happened to the crew of the ship. Many myths from local native tribes will also be analyzed by historians from the team to see if they could hold useful information, as both Chickasaw and Choctaw mythologies include many stories of fights against “red-haired devils”.

USA: Viking Ship Discovered Near Mississippi River – World News ...

It will be interesting to see if the Anthropologists can come up with anything from the Chickasaw and Choctaw myths, that may offer some clues as to where the Red Devils fled, to match the evidence that the Archaeologists have come up with. The Roman army had the ability to travel from Egypt to Britain B.C., and Julius Caesar has said the ships of the Celts were of superior quality to the Roman ships. I'm not trying to claim the Viking ship that was discovered on the banks of the Mississippi for the Celts, or the Gaels if you prefer, but the Vikings had fought, traded and married the Celts over the centuries, and at the very least they would have had access to the same ship-building knowledge, and the technology required to travel that far. The mythological stories of both cultures would have overlapped over the course of time, and may be our Tír na nÓg replaced their Valhalla.
Thanks for that, interesting
 

Earnán Ó Maille

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Thanks for that, interesting
I've just come across this on my travels..



'In his 1902 Myths of the Cherokee, ethnographer James Mooney described a "dim but persistent tradition" of an ancient people who preceded the Cherokee in lower Appalachia and were driven out by them. Accounts often describe them as having white skin and credit them with building the ancient structures in the area. The earliest recorded mention of them appears to be in Benjamin Smith Barton's 1797 book New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America. Citing the authority of Colonel Leonard Marbury, Barton wrote that "the Cheerake tell us, that when they first arrived in the country which they inhabit, they found it possessed by certain 'moon-eyed-people,' who could not see in the day-time. These wretches they expelled." Barton suggested these "moon-eyed people" were the ancestors of the albinos Lionel Wafer encountered among the Kuna people of Panama, who were called "moon-eyed" because they could see better at night than day.'

Moon-eyed people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

James Mooney wrote a book called the Ghost Dances, which is available online (link below), which was an eyewitness account of events. He translated dozens of different native American Indian languages, and he traced the origin of the Kiowa Apache in the late 19th century, when they were settled in the south west, all the way back to the north east, almost 500 years beforehand. I haven't read Myths of the Cherokee, but Mooney really knew his stuff, and I'm not sure if it's still available, but if someone was going to explore the subject much further, they could start at worse places.

Full text of "The ghost-dance religion and the Sioux outbreak of 1890"





Four Knocks, County Meath.

I think Four Knocks should really be called the Cold Rock(s), as the Irish name is Cnoc na bhFuara. The symbols drawn inside the tomb are almost identical to the native American symbol for the Shaman, or the 'medicine mans eye.' It could be just coincidence, but if you combine the native American symbol for mountain range, with the symbol for mountain range, it looks even more familiar when you look at the symbol inscribed on the rocks in Four Knocks Passage Tomb, would be the symbol for the 'wise men of the mountains', if it was inscribed on a rock in the Appalachians.

THE MYSTERY OF THE FORT MOUNTAIN WALL

The stone structures have long been a topic of debate. Many scientists have come to believe that the walls at Fort Mountain and other Southeast sites were built by native Americans between 200 B.C. and A.D. 600.

"We're not exactly sure what purposes these enclosures served," said Wood, the UGA archaeologist. "But they were likely well-known gathering places for social events. Seasonal meetings of friends and kin, trading of goods, astronomical observance, and religious or ceremonial activities may have occurred there."

Yet supporters of the Madoc legend say the wall's tear-shaped designs are similar to ruins found in Wales or elsewhere in Great Britain.

THE WELSH INDIANS

I found the following reference in John Keel's The Mothman Prophecies
quite interesting:

The Indians must have known something about West Virginia. They avoided it. Before the Europeans arrived with their glass beads, firewater, and gunpowder, the Indian nations had spread out and divided up the North American continent. Modern anthropologists have worked out maps of the Indian occupancy of pre-Columbian America according to the languages spoken. The Shawnee and Cherokee occupied the lands to the south and southwest. The Monocan settled to the east, and the Erie and Conestoga claimed the areas north of West Virginia. Even the inhospitable deserts of the Far West were divided and occupied. There is only one spot on the map labeled "Uninhabited:" West Virginia.

Why? The West Virginia area is fertile, heavily wooded, rich in game. Why did the Indians avoid it? Was it filled with hairy monsters and frightful apparitions way back when?

Across the river in Ohio, industrious Indians--or someone--built the great mounds and left us a great heritage of Indian culture and lore. The absence of an Indian tradition in West Virginia is troublesome for the researcher. It creates an uncomfortable vacuum. There are strange ancient ruins in the state, circular stone monuments which prove that someone settled the region once. Since the Indians didn't build such monuments, and since we don't even have any lore to fall back on, we have only mystery.

Chief Cornstalk and his Shawnees fought a battle there in the 1760's and Cornstalk is supposed to have put a curse on the area before he fell. But what happened there before? Did someone else live there?

The Cherokees have a tradition, according to Benjamin Smith Barton'sNew views of the origin of the tribes and nations of America. By Benjamin Smith Barton, M.D. Correspondent-member of the Society of the Antiquaries of Scotland
that when they migrated to Tennessee they found the region inhabited by a weird race of white people who lived in houses and were apparently quite civilized. They had one problem: their eyes were very large and sensitive to light. They could only see at night. The fierce Indians ran these "moon-eyed people" out. Did they move to West Virginia to escape their tormentors?

The Moon-Eyed People - Phantoms and Monsters: Pulse of the ...

The Archaeological evidence available for the Appalachian stone structures, does not support the 10th-11th century Welsh Indian theory, as scientists believe that they were constructed between 200 BC and 600 AD.

They had to be Irish Indians! Happy
 

Earnán Ó Maille

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Myths of the Cherokee

108. The Massacre Of The Ani'-kuta'nï

'Just before the Green-corn dance, in the old times, every fire in the settlement was extinguished and all the people came and got new fire from the townhouse. This was called atsi'la gälûñkw`ti'yu, "the honored or sacred fire." Sometimes when the fire in a house went out, the woman came to the fire keeper, who made a new fire by rubbing an ihyâ'ga stalk against the under side of a hard dry fungus that grows upon locust trees.'

111. The Mounds And The Constant Fire: The Old Sacred Things

126. Plant Lore

'Using the flame from Uisneach, fires were then ignited on the other sacred hills of Ireland and on low ground. When lit they created a unique ‘fire eye’ over the island, with Ériu seen to be ‘at home’ and, it was hoped, returning with an entire summer of sunshine.

The Uisneach fire was set in two distinct rings, with a centre fire said to be the ‘pupil’ of this great fire eye. In 1927, an excavation on the hill revealed substantial beds of ash under the prehistoric rings. At 55 metres in diameter the centre was certainly the relic of ‘Ireland’s Eye’.

As the centuries progressed, the great fire became the catalyst for the Bealtaine festival, an annual gathering and fair at Uisneach that continued to early modern times. As well as continuing to feature a giant bonfire, goods were exchanged and sacrifices offered to Gods. It was often the first chance of the year for neighbours to greet each other after a long and often times bitter winter and great celebrations ensued, not only at Uisneach but throughout the country. Feasting, dancing, music, tournaments and lovemaking were all avidly partaken as the festival proceeded.'

History – Gathering at Uisneach

'On June 21, Summer Solstice 2001, the spiritual leader of the Lakota, Nakota and Dakota people (otherwise known as the Great Sioux Nation), came to Ireland with an entourage of other Native Americans representing the Hopi, Pueblo and Cree people, to celebrate World Peace and Prayer Day and to ask people aroud the world to celebrate Mid Summer's Day by visiting the local sacred sites in their area. Some 300 people gathered at Uisneach (see photos above and left).'

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ASTROARCHAEOLOGY ...

The Myths of the Cherokee is available at the link, and there is an unmistakable parallel between the atsi'la gälûñkw`ti'yu, and the fires of Uisneach, but for me, the idea that the native American were in any way similar to Crusties or New Age Hippies simply doesn't add up, otherwise we wouldn't have the account of the Massacre of the Ani'-Kuta'nï, which I think is how the Sioux Chief Arvol Looking Horse & Co have presented the myth in recent times.

The Massacre of the Ani'-Kuta'nï:

"The Nicotani were a mystical, religious body, of whom the people stood in great awe, and seem to have been somewhat like the Brahmins of India. By what means they attained their ascendancy, or how long it was maintained, can never be ascertained. Their extinction by massacre is nearly all that can be discovered concerning them. They became haughty, insolent, overbearing, and licentious to an intolerable degree. Relying on their hereditary privileges and the strange awe which they inspired, they did not hesitate by fraud or violence to rend asunder the tender relations of husband and wife when a beautiful woman excited their passions. The people long brooded in silence over the oppressions and outrages of this high caste, whom they deeply hated but greatly feared. At length a daring young man, a member of an influential family, organized a conspiracy among the people for the massacre of the priesthood. The immediate provocation was the abduction of the wife of the young leader of the conspiracy. His wife was remarkable for her beauty, and was forcibly abducted and violated by one of the Nicotani while he was absent on the chase. On his return he found no difficulty in exciting in others the resentment which he himself experienced. So many had suffered in the same way, so many feared that they might be made to suffer, that nothing was wanted but a leader. A leader appearing in the person of the young brave whom we have named, the people rose under his direction and killed every Nicotani, young and old. Thus perished a hereditary secret society, since which time no hereditary privileges have been tolerated among the Cherokees."
 

Lara

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'Memphis, TN | A group of volunteers cleaning up the shores of the Mississippi river near the biggest city in Tennessee, have stumbled upon the remains of an ancient boat encrusted in mud. A team of archeologists from the University of Memphis that was rapidly called to the site, confirmed that the ship is most certainly a Viking knarr, suggesting the Norse would have pushed their exploration of America a lot further than historians previously thought.

The heavily damaged ship was found near the confluence of the Wolf and Mississippi rivers, and lies on a private property. It has a length of about 16 meters, a beam of 4.5 meters, and a hull that is estimated capable of carrying up to 24 to 28 tons, a typical size for this type of ship. Knarrs were naval vessels that were built by the Norsemen from Scandinavia and Iceland for Atlantic voyages, but also used for trade, commerce, exploration, and warfare during an era known as the Viking Age, that goes approximately from 793 to 1066 AD. They were clinker built, which means the overlapping of planks riveted together. It was capable of sailing 75 miles (121 km) in one day and held a crew of about 20 to 30 men.

The carbon dating of the new ship estimates that it dates from between 990 and 1050 AD, approximately the period associated with Vinland and the various Canadian sites (L’Anse aux Meadows, Tantfield Valley, Avayalik Islands). This could mean that the that the Viking had actually developed a far wider trade network in the Americas that what was traditionnally believed. Unfortunately, very few other artefacts have yet been found on the site, suggesting the crew must have most likely abandoned the ship and continued on foot.

More searches are to be expected in the area over the next few years, as scientists will now certainly try to look for any artefacts or historical traces that could lead them to understand what happened to the crew of the ship. Many myths from local native tribes will also be analyzed by historians from the team to see if they could hold useful information, as both Chickasaw and Choctaw mythologies include many stories of fights against “red-haired devils”.

USA: Viking Ship Discovered Near Mississippi River – World News ...

It will be interesting to see if the Anthropologists can come up with anything from the Chickasaw and Choctaw myths, that may offer some clues as to where the Red Devils fled, to match the evidence that the Archaeologists have come up with. The Roman army had the ability to travel from Egypt to Britain B.C., and Julius Caesar has said the ships of the Celts were of superior quality to the Roman ships. I'm not trying to claim the Viking ship that was discovered on the banks of the Mississippi for the Celts, or the Gaels if you prefer, but the Vikings had fought, traded and married the Celts over the centuries, and at the very least they would have had access to the same ship-building knowledge, and the technology required to travel that far. The mythological stories of both cultures would have overlapped over the course of time, and may be our Tír na nÓg replaced their Valhalla.
I remember this, quite recent.

When will they rewrite the history books i wonder?
 

Earnán Ó Maille

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I remember this, quite recent.

When will they rewrite the history books i wonder?
This bear bone discovery in Sligo could re-write Irish history

THE EXAMINATION OF a bear bone that lay in a cardboard box at the National Museum of Ireland for nearly 100 years could lead to the re-writing of Irish history.

The remarkable archaeological discovery was originally found in a Co Clare cave by scientists, and has pushed back the date of human existence in Ireland by 2,500 years.

Radiocarbon dating of the butchered brown bear bone has established that humans were on the island of Ireland some 12,500 years ago.

This bear bone discovery in Sligo could re-write Irish history

History is re-written all of the time. Human existence in Ireland could be traced back to 7,500 B.C. this time last year. Now it can be traced back to 10,000 B.C. If I was looking for a starting point in exploring the possibilities of either the Celts or the Vikings traveling that far south, I would probably start with James Mooney's work. He documented hundreds of poems, songs and stories of the native American Indians. The link is on the previous post to Myths of the Cherokees, and a quick glance of their Plant Lore will show you that these savages were quite intelligent.



Plains Apache language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

According to Wikipedia the Kiowa Apache are from the area covered in red, but from studying the plants they were singing about, Mooney was able to identify the Kiowa as a distinct group who originally migrated from the North East, 500 years beforehand. Another possibility is that a tribe such as the Kiowa or the Wichita who also migrated south, brought the technology they learned from the Vikings with them from the north, and that would explain the stone structures and the ship. The problem there is that there's a minimum gap of 390 years separating the stone structures and the ship.

'Many scientists have come to believe that the walls at Fort Mountain and other Southeast sites were built by native Americans between 200 B.C. and A.D. 600.'

'The carbon dating of the new ship estimates that it dates from between 990 and 1050 AD, approximately the period associated with Vinland and the various Canadian sites (L’Anse aux Meadows, Tantfield Valley, Avayalik Islands).'

The last native Kiowa Apache speaker died a few years ago, but the language has been recorded, and what Mooney done is he simply observed the food they ate, and hence, he discovered that the Kiowa Apache Ghost Dancers were singing songs about a particular type of plant that only grew in a region in the north. The obvious thing to do would be to compare the Cherokee Plant Lore, with Gaelic and Scandinavian plants.

You'd think I'm a WUM if I told you they ate a Cherry that sounds like Eriu.
 
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